Microdosing cannabis for penile cancer

Apr 29, 2024The nama Team
Microdosing cannabis for penile cancer

There’s not a lot of research or evidence surrounding penile cancer specifically, but the science is fairly solid that cannabis fights cancer

For example, a study by British Journal of Cancer article titled “Cannabinoids as anticancer drugs: current status of preclinical research” shows evidence that low doses of cannabis have the following effects on cancer: 

  1. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation
  2. Inhibition of cancer metastasis (spreading to different parts of the body)
  3. Inhibition of cancer cell angiogenesis (the formation of blood vessels)
  4. Reduction of cancer cell chemoresistance
  5. Induction of apoptosis (cell death) and autophagy (cell recycling)

In addition to its anticancer activities, low-dose cannabis seems to reduce the negative effects of chemotherapy.

In the absence of conclusive evidence either way—and given the helpfulness of cannabis with other cancers—it’s probably not a bad idea for those with penile cancer to try low-dose cannabis and test its effects for themselves. 

For many medical uses, low doses of cannabis offer health benefits without the potential negatives of getting too high. Our THC gummies contain the perfect balance of low-dose THC and CBD, so you can experience the therapeutic benefits of cannabis without the side effects of higher dosages.

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Understanding penile cancer

Penile cancer is a malignant growth that originates in the cells of the penis. It primarily develops at the foreskin or the tissues beneath it, although it can occur anywhere on the penis. It usually begins as a small, painless patch or bump on the penis that may gradually grow larger, change color, thicken, or ulcerate. As the cancer cells multiply and the tumor grows, it can spread deeper into the tissue of the penis, eventually invading the spongy chambers that fill with blood during an erection (corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum).

If left untreated, penile cancer cells can break away from the initial tumor and spread through the lymphatic system to nearby lymph nodes, most often in the groin. In advanced stages, the cancer may further metastasize to the liver, lungs, bones, or other organs.

Penile cancer is very rare. According to the National Cancer Institute, only about 2,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with the disease each year. Still, it can be life-threatening if not detected and treated early. 

What are the symptoms of penile cancer?

Penile cancer often presents with visible changes on the penis, which may be painless initially but can progress and cause discomfort. Common symptoms of penile cancer include:

  • A new or growing lump, bump, or sore on the penis
  • Changes in the color or thickness of the penile skin
  • Persistent redness, irritation, or rash on the penis
  • A non-healing ulcer or wound on the penis
  • Unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis or under the foreskin
  • Swelling or pain in the penis or groin area
  • Unexplained pain or itching in the genital area
  • Changes in the shape or curvature of the penis
  • Difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis)

If you notice any of these symptoms on your penis, talk to your doctor right away.

Types of penile cancer

Penile cancer can develop in different cell types found in the penis, leading to different kinds of tumors. They include:

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the flat skin cells (squamous cells) that make up the skin and the moist, inner lining of the penis. This type accounts for over 95% of all penile tumor cases.
  2. Melanoma originates in the skin cells that produce pigment (melanocytes), causing dark-colored tumors.
  3. Basal cell carcinoma forms in the round cells beneath the squamous cells. It rarely metastasizes but can invade nearby tissues.
  4. Adenocarcinoma arises in the sweat glands of the penis, accounting for a small percentage of penile cancers.
  5. Sarcoma develops in the connective tissues of the penis, such as blood vessels or smooth muscle, and can be aggressive.

What causes penile cancer?

The exact cause of penile cancer isn't always clear, but certain factors can increase a man's risk of developing it. Risk factors for penile cancer include:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  • Smoking or other tobacco use
  • Phimosis (inability to retract the foreskin)
  • Poor genital hygiene
  • Uncircumcised penis
  • Chronic inflammation or irritation of the penis
  • Weakened immune system (due to HIV/AIDS or organ transplant)
  • Older age (most cases occur in men over 50)
  • Personal history of penile or genital precancerous conditions
  • Family history of penile cancer (rare)

Having one or more of these risk factors doesn't necessarily mean you'll develop penile cancer, but it does increase the likelihood. 

How is penile cancer treated?

The treatment plan for penile cancer depends on the stage, location, and type of cancer. The goal is to eliminate the cancer while preserving as much of the penis as possible and maintaining sexual and urinary function.

Treatment options for penile cancer include:

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation therapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Immunotherapy
  5. Targeted therapy

In many cases, a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy may give the best possible outcome in treating penile cancer. These aggressive approaches often come with a plethora of unpleasant side effects, such as pain, nausea, fatigue, and sexual dysfunction, which can further worsen a patient's quality of life during this challenging time. 

Some men have started microdosing cannabis to alleviate the harsh adverse effects of traditional cancer treatments. Small, controlled doses of cannabis may allow patients to experience relief from treatment-related symptoms without the intoxicating effects associated with higher doses.

Research suggests that cannabis may possess potent anticancer properties that could potentially enhance the effectiveness of conventional therapies in fighting many types of cancer, including penile cancer. 

How does cannabis help treat cancer?

Emerging research reveals the potent anticancer effects of cannabis. According to a 2022 systematic review and meta-analysis, cannabis compounds such as Delta 9 THC and cannabidiol (CBD) combat different cancer types by:

  • Preventing metastasis of cancer cells
  • Triggering apoptosis (cell death) in tumor cells
  • Suppressing angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) in cancer cells
  • Enhancing the body's anti-tumor immune response through the endocannabinoid system

The anti-metastatic action of cannabinoids

THC and CBD have inhibitory effects on the growth and spread (metastasis) of cancer cells. Through synergistic efforts, they target and suppress signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation to prevent cancer cells from multiplying and spreading to healthy tissues.

Preet, et. al. found that “THC was able to inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases in a murine model of lung cancer.” This means that cannabis may help fight lung cancer

Honarmand, et. al. suggested that, besides the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative effects, cannabis treatments in animal studies also induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) in some cancer cells.

Cannabis triggers cancer cell death

Cannabis may cause cancer cells to self-destruct by disrupting their inner workings. They achieve this by increasing oxidative stress and activating the cells' inbuilt "suicide" proteins that drive cancer cells to die off. This may reduce tumor growth and slow its progression.

A 2005 study showed that Delta 9 THC can promote apoptosis in a serious type of brain cancer by selectively targeting GBM cells without significantly affecting normal brain cells. The results revealed that “treatment with THC produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects of cell viability and proliferation.” 

Cannabis suppresses angiogenesis in cancer cells

Angiogenesis is a natural process that supplies our cells with fresh oxygen and nutrients. In cancer cells, angiogenesis is bad because it enables tumors to feed and grow. Blázquez, et. al. found two main mechanisms by which THC and CBD inhibit the growth of blood vessels that feed tumors:

  • First, they directly block the migration and survival of the cells that line these blood vessels.
  • Second, they reduce the production of proteins that promote blood vessel formation and help tumors spread.

This dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic action helps starve and contain cancerous growths. THC and CBD primarily exert their anticancer effects by interacting with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

The anti-tumor role of the endocannabinoid system

The (ECS) is a vital physiological network that helps maintain balance in the body, including regulating immune response. While our bodies naturally produce endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant interact with our ECS in the same way. They bind to the endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) to influence pain management, sleep, appetite, the immune response, and many other biochemical changes in the body. 

Many cancer cells overexpress cannabinoid receptors, making them highly susceptible targets for cannabis compounds to activate cell death pathways. Fraguas-Sánchez, et. al. discovered that human leukemia cells expressed high levels of CB2 receptors. Leukemic cells are rich in CB2 receptors that cannabinoids can target to induce cancer cell death. 

THC and CBD may inhibit penile cancer cell proliferation, reduce tumor invasion and metastasis, and induce cancer cell death through their interactions with the ECS.

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Can microdosing cannabis fight penile cancer?

While there is some promising research on cannabis for cancer in general, there aren’t any studies that support the effectiveness of cannabis microdoses for treating penile cancer. 

The anticancer properties of THC and CBD that have been observed in other types of cancer might also apply to penile cancer. The anti-metastatic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic effects of these cannabinoids could potentially help men in their battle against this rare disease. 

Abrams, M.D. suggests that, despite the potential anticancer properties, cannabis may be most helpful as a complementary therapy to manage cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects.

Hinz and Ramer maintain that the antitumor effects of cannabinoids have been demonstrated in numerous clinical studies, pointing to the efficacy of cannabis-derived compounds as an adjunct treatment for different cancers. This could theoretically extend to penile, testicular, and other types of malignancies that affect men. Read more about the benefits of cannabis microdoses in treating testicular cancer.

While there’s insufficient evidence to confirm the specific benefits for penile cancer, the existing research suggests that cannabis compounds may offer some hope as a complementary therapy alongside conventional treatments. 

Cannabis and chemotherapy-related side effects

In addition to their direct anticancer properties, THC and CBD have medicinal effects that alleviate the nasty side effects of chemotherapy. 

Tomko, et. al. found that “the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is currently limited to the treatment of symptoms and pain associated with chemotherapy, while their potential use as cytotoxic drugs in chemotherapy still requires validation in patients.”

Let’s see how cannabis compounds bring relief from chemotherapy-induced side effects:

  1. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are some of the most distressing side effects for advanced cancer patients. Low doses of cannabis can significantly reduce these symptoms. By interacting with the endocannabinoid system's CB1 receptors, THC induces antiemetic effects, alleviating feelings of nausea and vomiting.
  2. Mental health is often compromised for cancer patients due to the stress of their diagnosis and treatment. Cannabis can help manage anxiety and depression symptoms. CBD is believed to interact with serotonin receptors in the brain to regulate mood. Small doses of cannabis can promote relaxation, improve mood, and reduce anxiety, thus improving the overall mental well-being of patients.
  3. Chemotherapy often leads to a reduced appetite, causing weight loss and weakening the patient’s immune system. THC is a well-known appetite stimulant. By interacting with the CB1 receptors in the brain's hypothalamus, it stimulates the release of the hormone ghrelin, which triggers hunger. Regular, low-dose consumption of cannabis can promote healthy weight gain in cancer patients.
  4. THC and CBD have analgesic effects that can help with cancer pain relief. THC interacts with CB1 receptors to alter pain perception, while the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol may contribute to reducing irritation and pain relief. 
  5. Many cancer patients struggle with insomnia and poor sleep quality. Low doses of cannabis can help by promoting relaxation and reducing anxiety, two key components of healthy sleep. Learn more about the pro-sleep properties of cannabis.

If you're undergoing chemotherapy for penile or other types of cancer and struggling with the side effects, our Delta 9 gummies may provide the relief you need. Our carefully crafted edibles contain balanced blends of THC and CBD that work synergistically to alleviate nausea, stimulate appetite, reduce pain and anxiety, and promote restful sleep. 

Try our Relax Plus gummies with a low-dose THC formula (only 5 milligrams per gummy) and experience symptom relief without unwanted intoxication. These delicious edibles will bring a newfound sense of well-being and boost quality of life during your cancer treatment. 

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What is the best way to microdose cannabis?

There are many different consumption methods available: smoking, vaping, and tinctures, to name a few. But if you're looking to microdose, edibles such as our low-dose THC gummies and cannabis beverages are your best option. 

We prefer edibles over other methods for a few key reasons:

  1. With gummies or beverages, the THC amount is clearly labeled on the packaging, taking the guesswork out of how much you're consuming. This allows you to meticulously control your microdose for the desired mild effects.
  2. When ingested, edible cannabis is metabolized differently. Our THC gummies can produce effects that last 6–8 hours, versus just 1–3 hours from inhalation methods. The effects of our THC drinks last up to 6 hours for most people. 
  3. Effects come on slower, preventing overconsumption. The onset of edibles takes anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 hours, which means the effects ramp up gradually, making it easier to gauge your optimal microdose without accidentally taking too much.
  4. Edibles avoid carcinogens and tar that can be inhaled from smoking cannabis or vaping concentrate oils. For those with respiratory issues or sensitivities, edibles are perfect because they completely bypass the lungs and any irritation from smoke or vapor.
  5. Low-dose THC gummies and cannabis-infused beverages offer the utmost discretion for microdosing, with no telltale scents to give away consumption. Gummies can be popped like any other candy, while infused drinks blend right in with other non-alcoholic beverages. They provide an easy, inconspicuous way to microdose cannabis wherever you go.

Whether you need relief from chronic pain, help to alleviate harsh side effects from cancer treatment, or simply want to feel delightfully relaxed with a mild buzz, our gummies and drinks are the perfect choice. 

Ready to experience blissful microdosing? Try our Bliss Delta 9 gummies. They are the perfect low-dose option to help manage anxiety, improve sleep, and bring some fruity delight to your day. 

If you’re looking for something to share with friends on a lazy Saturday afternoon, our Buzz Drops™ offer relaxation and mild euphoria in a glass. Prepare high-quality craft mocktails and infuse them with low doses of THC and CBD to get the party started.

"…I ordered one bottle and I gave it a try nothing really happened the first 20 minutes, so I put another half dropped full and VOILA there it was!!! A buzz. But without the heaviness of drinking. It put me in a great mood and no paranoid feelings of a cannabis high. It felt like happy hour. The best part is it doesn’t give you bad cotton mouth! Yay!! Ordering two more. I highly recommend to everyone."

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Are cannabis gummies legal?

Delta 9 THC is federally legal in the US under specific 2018 Farm Bill stipulations that say that Delta 9 THC edibles are legal if:

  • The THC is derived from hemp, not marijuana
  • The THC content does not exceed 0.3% by dry weight. 

The Farm Bill removed hemp from the list of controlled substances, legally separating hemp from marijuana. This means that all of our THC edibles are 100% legal at the federal level because they’re made from organic hemp. 

If you’re looking to buy the best THC edibles in the country, nama™ is the obvious choice. We care about what goes into our gummies, so we make sure we use only the highest quality ingredients and natural flavors. 

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Penile cancer FAQ

Several observational studies have investigated the association between cannabis use and prostate cancer risk. A population-based case-control study published in BMC Cancer found that marijuana use was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk.

Some evidence suggests that cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells than in normal prostate tissue. In vitro studies indicate that cannabinoids such as THC and CBD can inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, but more research is needed to confirm these effects in humans.

While there is limited clinical evidence, cannabis oil containing THC and CBD may provide benefits for people with advanced cancer. A retrospective study published in JAMA Intern Med found that a combination of THC and CBD oil improved quality of life and reduced cancer-related symptoms in patients with advanced cancers. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of cannabis oil for cancer treatment. It's important to note that cannabis should not replace standard cancer therapies but may offer complementary benefits under medical supervision.

The association between marijuana smoking and cancer risk remains unclear because of the mixed epidemiological evidence and inadequate adjustment for confounding factors like tobacco use. While marijuana smoke contains carcinogens similar to tobacco smoke, studies have not consistently linked marijuana use to an increased risk of lung cancer, oral cancer, or other aerodigestive tract cancers. 

A cross-sectional study published in BMC Public Health found no significant differences in lung cancer risk between marijuana-only smokers and non-smokers after adjusting for tobacco use. The study had limitations, and more research is needed to assess the long-term effects of marijuana smoking on cancer risk.

Some studies have suggested potential links between certain prostate drugs and increased cancer risk. For example, a population-based case-control study published in PLoS One found an association between the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), such as finasteride and dutasteride, and an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. 

The evidence is mixed, and the benefits of these drugs for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and reducing low-grade prostate cancer risk may outweigh the potential risks for some patients. 

Preclinical studies have shown that CBD can inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in various cancer models. A 2023 study demonstrated that CBD induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 

Another study reported that CBD reduced the growth of glioblastoma xenografts in mice by inducing cancer cell death and inhibiting angiogenesis. However, most of these studies were conducted in cell lines or animal models, and more clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of CBD in reducing tumor size in human patients.

The body has several natural mechanisms to eliminate cancer cells, including apoptosis (programmed cell death), immune surveillance, and autophagy. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies exploit these mechanisms and selectively kill cancer cells. 

Some studies suggest that cannabinoids like THC and CBD can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells by modulating cell signaling pathways and the endocannabinoid system. A healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and maintaining a normal body weight may help prevent cancer development and support the body's natural defenses against cancer cells. More research is needed to fully understand the complex interactions between lifestyle factors, cancer biology, and treatment responses.

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Resources

Hinz, B., & Ramer, R. (2022). Cannabinoids as anticancer drugs: Current status of preclinical research. British Journal of Cancer, 127(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-022-01727-4

Many Men with Penile Cancer Not Getting Recommended Treatments. (2018, March 22). National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2018/penile-cancer-recommended-treatment

Preet A, Ganju RK, Groopman JE. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo. Oncogene. 2008 Jan 10;27(3):339-46. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210641. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID: 17621270.

Honarmand, M., Namazi, F., Mohammadi, A., & Nazifi, S. (2018, August 27). Can cannabidiol inhibit angiogenesis in colon cancer? Comparative Clinical Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2810-6

McAllister SD, Chan C, Taft RJ, Luu T, Abood ME, Moore DH, Aldape K, Yount G. Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. J Neurooncol. 2005 Aug;74(1):31-40. doi: 10.1007/s11060-004-5950-2. PMID: 16078104.

Blázquez C, Casanova ML, Planas A, Gómez Del Pulgar T, Villanueva C, Fernández-Aceñero MJ, Aragonés J, Huffman JW, Jorcano JL, Guzmán M. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. FASEB J. 2003 Mar;17(3):529-31. doi: 10.1096/fj.02-0795fje. Epub 2003 Jan 2. PMID: 12514108.

Fraguas-Sánchez, A. I., Martín-Sabroso, C., & Torres-Suárez, A. I. (2018). Insights into the effects of the endocannabinoid system in cancer: A review. British Journal of Pharmacology, 175(13), 2566-2580. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14331

Abrams, D. I. (2022). Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Cannabis-Based Medicines in Cancer

Care. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 21. https://doi.org/10.1177/15347354221081772

Tomko, A. M., Whynot, E. G., Ellis, L. D., & Dupré, D. J. (2020). Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis. Cancers, 12(7), 1985. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071985

Chen, C., Naidoo, N., Yang, Q., Hartman, M., Verkooijen, H. M., Loy, E. Y., Bouchardy, C., Chia, K. S., & Chia, S. E. (2012, June 6). A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006. BMC Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-222

Ghasemiesfe, M., Barrow, B., Leonard, S., Keyhani, S., & Korenstein, D. (2019, November 27). Association Between Marijuana Use and Risk of Cancer. JAMA Network Open. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16318

Calcaterra, S. L., Burnett‐Hartman, A. N., Powers, J. D., Corley, D. A., McMullen, C., Pawloski, P. A., & Feigelson, H. S. (2020, May 3). A population-based survey to assess the association between cannabis and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors. BMC Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06887-1

Hsieh, F., Yang, W., Lee, S., Lin, H., Liu, H., Tsai, H., Chen, C., Huang, S., & Lee, C. (2015). Use of 5-Alpha-Reductase Inhibitors Did Not Increase the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study. PLOS ONE, 10(3), e0119694. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119694

G., M., Tapia Ramírez, J., & Meza, I. (2022). CBD Inhibits In Vivo Development of Human Breast Cancer Tumors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(17), 13235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713235

Soroceanu, L., Singer, E., Dighe, P., Sidorov, M., Limbad, C., Rodriquez-Brotons, A., Rix, P., L Woo, R. W., Dickinson, L., Desprez, Y., & McAllister, S. D. (2022). Cannabidiol inhibits RAD51 and sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide in multiple orthotopic tumor models. Neuro-Oncology Advances, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdac019

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