Does Weed Permanently Damage Your Brain?

Sep 21, 2023The nama Team

Heavy cannabis use can negatively impact the brain, especially those areas involved in memory and motor control. Over time, these effects can become permanent.

However, low doses of cannabis can actually improve brain function and fight dementia. That’s why we’re such big fans of microdosing, and why all our products have low doses of Delta 9 THC and other cannabis compounds.

Does Weed Permanently Damage Your Brain?

Microdoses of THC demonstrate therapeutic promise for strengthening focus, neuroplasticity, and learning capacity. In fact, ultra-low doses show potential to stave off cognitive decline through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

If you really want to experience the full benefits of cannabis, try our collection of cannabis edibles. They deliver microdoses of THC, CBD, and other compounds.

Are you new to microdosing? Discover all its secrets in our comprehensive guide to the benefits of taking low cannabis doses

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How Does Cannabis Affect the Brain? 

Cannabis affects the brain very differently at different doses. At high doses, it makes you, well, high. It can also lead to decreased mental capacity over time. 

At low doses, cannabis may actually improve brain function, according to research. 

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9 THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) interact with our endocannabinoid system (ECS) to modulate cognition, movement, appetite, and more. 

At higher doses, THC overstimulates the endocannabinoid system, leading to impaired coordination, cognition, and memory. The longer you consume these higher doses of THC, the less motivated and mentally sharp you’ll be. 

For a fuller understanding of THC, read our guide to how Delta 9 makes you feel

Before we explain how they affect our endocannabinoid system, here’s all about the similarities and differences between THC and CBD

What Is The Endocannabinoid System?

The ECS is a complex network of receptors, enzymes, and natural chemicals called endocannabinoids that our bodies naturally produce. This system controls a wide range of bodily functions, such as feeling pain, mood, appetite, immune system function, and sleep. The endocannabinoid system is also critical for brain health and function.

Cannabis compounds mimic and interact with the body's cannabinoid receptors. Some of them (CB1 receptors) are highly concentrated in brain regions involved in cognition, reward, stress, fear, and motivation, essentially modulating core psychological experiences. When THC interacts with CB1 receptors, it produces euphoric feelings typically associated with smoking marijuana. 

But aside from giving you euphoria, this interaction also has therapeutic applications.

  • Endocannabinoids can help relieve chronic pain by acting on cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They suppress the release of neurotransmitters that send pain signals while activating systems that fight inflammation and promote healing. (Hoogen, et. al.)

However, cannabis compounds differ in their affinity for cannabinoid receptors and can overstimulate the endocannabinoid system with frequent or heavy use. This is particularly true about Delta 9 THC, as it can have the strongest psychoactive properties out of all cannabis compounds. 

That’s why, when talking about any potentially harmful effects of cannabis, we mostly mean THC. Taken in excessive doses regularly, THC has the potential to impair cognitive function and even change the brain’s structure over time

All the more reasons to turn to microdosing cannabis and ditch all other unreliable and potentially hazardous methods. Our low-dose THC gummies might just be the greatest—and juiciest—way to consume cannabis without the fear of causing damage to your lungs, brain, or any other organ. 

Is Heavy THC Use Bad for the Brain?

When consumed repeatedly in high doses, THC can potentially cause changes in the brain that undermine cognitive health and function. When our ECS is flooded with large quantities of THC, it places a significant burden on neural communication pathways. 

According to Volkow, et. al., heavy cannabis use causes the following negative effects:

  • Paranoia and psychosis
  • Addiction
  • Impaired short-term memory
  • Impaired motor coordination
  • Cognitive impairment

Other studies reveal altered activity in regions like the prefrontal and temporal cortices, as well as the striatum and cerebellum, and a plethora of adverse effects. 

At high doses, the frequency and seriousness of undesired acute effects of cannabis increases, especially in naïve users. Many short-term symptoms can manifest, such as depersonalization, derealization, disorientation, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid ideas, disordered thinking, irrational panic, psychomotor agitation, and emotional lability. Toxic or organic psychosis can be induced in people without history of severe mental illness. These problems generally resolve within a week of abstinence. (Panlilio, et. al.)

With prolonged heavy use over months or years, these effects can translate into persistent impairments like lower verbal IQ, diminished cognitive flexibility, and faulty episodic memory. You don’t want that. 

To make sure you understand how detrimental heavy cannabis use is, let’s see what acute and long-term effects chronic heavy use can have on the brain.

What Are the Acute Effects of THC on the Brain?

Acute THC intoxication generates temporary cognitive and sensory impairments that can reduce your productivity, cloud your judgment, and disrupt motor control and coordination

This is what higher amounts of THC do to your thinking muscles immediately after consumption:

  • Excessive THC can temporarily cause issues with memory and cognition. You may have a hard time forming new memories or retrieving old ones. Transferring information into long-term storage becomes tricky while you’re high.
  • You may have trouble concentrating. Attention and focus are diminished under the influence. Even simple tasks become challenging because of your reduced ability to filter out external distractions.
  • Motor control, balance, and reaction time can become compromised as high THC affects the cerebellum and basal ganglia. This impacts movements that require coordination. Your reaction time slows down, so actions requiring agility like sports get much harder. 
  • THC can alter your experience of time by affecting dopamine signaling. Time may appear to speed up or slow down unpredictably. Read more about the therapeutic effects of low-dose THC on dopamine.
  • Higher doses of THC can trigger anxiety, fear, and paranoia in certain people, especially those already prone to anxiety. If you’re already susceptible to anxiety, your negative thoughts may spiral.

Our edibles deliver slower effects at low doses, so you stay healthy. It takes anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours to feel the full effects of our THC gummies. While you may think that’s too slow, just remember that edibles have longer-lasting effects.

Our Relax Plus gummies, for example, can keep you relaxed for up to eight hours. Can a cannabis vape do that?

What Are the Long-Term Effects of THC on the Brain?

Some effects of heavy THC can stick around longer than the high. Research suggests that chronic exposure to high doses of THC and other cannabis compounds could have long-lasting detrimental neurological impacts.

Changes in Brain Structure

Prolonged heavy cannabis use is linked to differences in the volume and connectivity of various brain regions in some studies. Areas often implicated include the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum. These regions govern functions like memory formation, emotions, decision-making, and motor control. 

Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. (Batalla, et. al.)

The study found that chronic cannabis use can cause changes in brain areas like the frontal cortex, medial temporal cortex (the middle part of the brain), and the cerebellum at the back of the brain. These structural brain changes can negatively impact your cognition, behavior, and mental health.

Cognitive Function Alterations

Heavy cannabis users typically show declines in:

  • Memory
  • Learning
  • Attention
  • Concentration
  • Verbal memory
  • Impulse control

These effects may persist for days or weeks after you stop using it, following years of excessive use. Volkow, et. al. confirmed that regular cannabis use harms specific brain regions involved in these important functions.

…adults who smoked marijuana regularly during adolescence have impaired neural connectivity (fewer fibers) in specific brain regions. These include the precuneus, a key node that is involved in functions that require a high degree of integration (e.g., alertness and self-conscious awareness), and the fimbria, an area of the hippocampus that is important in learning and memory.

A 2012 study found that people who used cannabis regularly for a long time had significant alterations and issues with their brain functions. The study followed over 1,000 individuals from birth until the age of 38. They checked their cannabis use at different ages and tested their brain functions at 13 and 38 years old.

Persistent cannabis use was associated with neuropsychological decline broadly across domains of functioning, even after controlling for years of education. Informants also reported noticing more cognitive problems for persistent cannabis users. Impairment was concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users, with more persistent use associated with greater decline. 

The results showed a significant decline in brain function, including memory, thinking, and problem-solving. This cognitive decline was most significant in people who started using cannabis during their teenage years. The more they used it, the worse the decline in brain function.

Increased Risk of Mental Health Disorders

Studies show a link between early, frequent cannabis use and an increased risk of certain mental health issues. Excessive amounts of cannabis, especially THC, can disrupt normal brain activity, potentially leading to mental health problems.

“Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users.” (Di Forti, et. al.)

Jenkins and Khokhar explain how, in healthy people, heavy THC use can temporarily reduce certain brain rhythms, like gamma power, and increase background noise in the brain. These changes are linked to several symptoms of psychosis (e.g., altered thinking and perception). 

They also illustrate the difference between the effects of THC and CBD on the brain, especially when taken in higher doses. THC tends to increase brain activity, while CBD can reverse some of these effects, potentially offering some protection against the negative mental health impacts of THC. 

Both THC and CBD enhanced firing frequencies of VTA non-DA neurons compared to controls, while only THC administration enhanced beta, gamma, and low delta power; THC also increased behavioral measures of fear responsivity, morphine conditioned place preference, and sucrose preference. CBD reversed all THC-induced changes (except for sucrose preference, which it enhanced) when co-administered.

Jenkins and Khokhar also revealed that THC can affect people with schizophrenia by altering brain activity patterns, making some brain waves stronger or weaker. For example, it may reduce the power of auditory responses in the brain.

A 2007 study published in The Lancet found that heavy cannabis use can lead to long-lasting mental health problems, specifically psychosis and affective disorders (like depression and anxiety). The evidence was strongest for psychotic episodes, but when it came to depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety, the results were less consistent. 

While higher doses may actually exacerbate anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues, low doses of THC are actually good for alleviating symptoms of mental disorders

Our Energy Gummies contain a balanced ratio of THC and CBD, which join with relaxing L-theanine and neuroprotective B12 for a longer-lasting anti-anxiety effect. 

Read more about the anxiolytic effects of low-dose THC edibles

Adaptive Changes in the Endocannabinoid System

Long-term use of cannabis can negatively impact brain function by causing adaptive changes in the endocannabinoid system. With heavy cannabis use, THC overstimulates cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain. This leads to their downregulation, reducing their density and sensitivity in regions like the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum.

These areas then become underactive when not intoxicated, as endogenous cannabinoids have fewer receptors to activate. Since the downregulated endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmitters like dopamine, glutamate, and GABA, their signaling is disrupted. Imbalances in neurotransmitters that regulate cognition and behavior lead to impaired memory and decreased focus, motivation, learning, and emotional regulation when sober.

Overdoing THC by frequently using high-potency cannabis can definitely mess with your brain in the long run. Getting really stoned day after day changes the shape and chemistry of regions involved in memory, motivation, and emotions. 

But not all cannabis is created equal. While too much THC can be harmful, carefully controlled microdoses and products with balanced ratios of THC and CBD can provide all the benefits without any of the risks. 

Did you know that small cannabis doses have anti-inflammatory effects that may reduce neuroinflammation and help protect against cognitive decline?

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Is Microdosing THC Bad for the Brain?

Unlike the impairments caused by THC intoxication, research suggests microdosing THC may provide neuroprotective and neurogenic effects without cognitive deficits. Small doses seem to nourish brain cells rather than damage them. 

Here’s how. 

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of THC and CBD

In microdoses, cannabis compounds demonstrate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. They suppress damaging immune responses and free radicals that drive neurodegeneration. This protects neurons and mitigates age-related cognitive decline.

The anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis help protect the brain by attenuating immune system over-activation that contributes to gradual neuronal damage and loss of function over time. 

Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon gamma were the most commonly studied pro-inflammatory cytokines and their levels were consistently reduced after treatment with CBD, CBG, or CBD+THC. (Henshaw, et. al.)

Inflammation is the immune system's response to infection, injury, toxins, or cellular stress. While beneficial in fighting infections or healing injuries, chronic inflammation is linked to many neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Inflammation triggers increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, allowing the entry of neutrophils, cytokines, and other immune cells or proteins that can damage neurons. This also activates resident immune cells like microglia, which release cytotoxic compounds, free radicals, and proinflammatory factors that further damage neurons.

THC and CBD suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine production, and microglial activation responsible for chronic inflammation in the brain. They stimulate anti-inflammatory cytokines and support the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, helping block immune cell infiltration. This is how they help reduce chronic neuroinflammatory responses that can ultimately lead to neuronal damage, synapse loss, and nerve cell death over time.

Low Doses of Cannabis Increase Neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity is the brain's ability to structurally and functionally adapt and change over time by remodeling neural pathways and synapses. It is facilitated by neurogenesis, the growth of new neurons from neural stem cells. THC and CBD can boost neurogenesis by interacting with our endocannabinoid system to stimulate signaling pathways involved in neural stem cell proliferation.

Because of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic properties, microdosing THC can help dementia patients by providing neuroprotective benefits without the risks of cognitive impairment associated with THC intoxication.

That’s why our Bliss Delta 9 gummies are packed with equal amounts of THC and CBD (5 mg each) to activate those little gray cells and help you alleviate symptoms of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. 

By boosting neurogenesis and neural connectivity, cannabis may help reverse age-related declines in brain plasticity.

Microdosing Can Enhance Mood

Low dose cannabinoids are associated with improved emotional regulation, decreased stress, heightened motivation, and an overall sense of well-being without triggering psychosis or anxiety. Microdosing may also help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety.

The endocannabinoid system regulates emotional processes like mood, stress response, and motivation via cannabinoid receptors concentrated in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Microdosing THC and CBD lightly stimulates the ECS, increasing anandamide levels, which improve mood and reduce anxiety through their interactions with serotonin and dopamine signaling.

Lower doses of THC act more on cannabinoid CB1 receptors, which control the release of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, happiness, and anxiety. Microdoses of CBD also inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, leaving more available in the synapse and amplifying serotonergic signaling. This boosts serotonin's anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects without overstimulating the endocannabinoid system or causing mood instability like higher THC doses.

Read our in-depth look at the serotonin-increasing mechanisms of low-dose cannabis.

THC and CBD Improve Focus

Contrary to high doses, microdoses of cannabis have been found to sharpen focus, boost productivity, enhance memory consolidation, and quicken recall speed in some studies. 

Focus and concentration depend greatly on precise signaling between neurons in the prefrontal cortex. It’s no coincidence that THC and CBD can modulate prefrontal cortex activity through their effects on the endocannabinoid system. More specifically, low doses appear to increase prefrontal cortex blood flow and help stabilize connections between neurons. This strengthens signaling circuits involved in executive functions like attention, cognitive flexibility, and filtering distractions.

This is mighty good news for people struggling with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A study of 1,700 participants found that small doses of cannabis improved ADHD symptoms. The combination of THC and CBD seems to target some of the key brain signaling deficits implicated in ADHD. 

There’s no question that higher amounts of cannabis are bad for your health, including the brain and other vital organs. But microdosing may hit the sweet spot that provides therapeutic benefits without the risks. 

Especially when you combine THC with CBD.

Is CBD Bad for the Brain?

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is another major cannabinoid. Unlike THC, CBD does not produce intoxication in the brain. Instead, it may counteract some of THC's effects. CBD has anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, and pain relieving properties. It may also protect brain cells and encourage new brain cell growth.

Here are some findings about CBD’s interactions with the brain:

  • It does not cause intoxication or impair cognition or psychomotor control.
  • It may help protect the brain and promote neurogenesis through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 
  • It helps regulate inflammation implicated in neurodegeneration.
  • It does not disrupt learning and memory circuits the way THC does at high doses. CBD may improve memory consolidation and cognitive performance.
  • CBD may counterbalance some of the negative neurological effects of THC, such as anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms.
  • CBD may also enhance signaling of serotonin and other neurotransmitters involved in regulating mood, focus, pain, and sleep cycles. 

We can’t stress enough how beneficial taking low doses of THC and CBD together can be for your brain. But we can offer you our delectable selection of full spectrum CBD gummies that draws out the very best of both cannabinoids.

Edibles like Euphoria Delta 9 gummies contain CBD and THC to trigger the ultimate entourage effect, in which cannabinoids work together to enhance each other’s benefits. This way, your brain can experience improved relaxation, focus, and mood without the risk of paranoia or anxiety that comes with high THC amounts. 

With the entourage effect and our full spectrum edibles, your brain gets the euphoric buzz plus neuroprotective advantages for optimized mind-body wellness. Instead of overdoing your brain with loads of cannabis, small amounts of THC and CBD might just be the smarter, safer approach for your neurological health.

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Cannabis FAQ

Both alcohol and weed can have adverse effects on the brain, but the severity of these effects depends on factors such as usage patterns, quantity consumed, and individual differences between users.

Alcohol is a depressant of the central nervous system and can lead to impairments in cognitive function, memory, and motor skills, especially in heavy or chronic drinkers. Long-term alcohol abuse can result in conditions like alcohol-related dementia.

When used heavily, cannabis has been associated with cognitive impairments, especially in areas like memory, attention, and learning. Moderation is key, and our Delta 9 gummies are expertly-formulated to lift your spirits, not obliterate them.

There is limited evidence to suggest negative effects of cannabis use for kidney function. Some studies have shown that heavy or chronic cannabis use may lead to conditions like cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), which can cause severe vomiting and electrolyte imbalances. Prolonged vomiting and dehydration associated with CHS could potentially stress the kidneys.

According to research, excessive cannabis use may cause “severe volume depletion resulting in acute kidney injury and severe electrolyte disturbances with rhabdomyolysis.”

In contrast, low doses of cannabis are more beneficial for kidney function. Microdosing THC and CBD may actually protect the kidneys and support healthy renal function through their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic properties. 

Small, regular doses have been shown to reduce inflammation and scarring in animal models of chronic kidney disease. By mitigating inflammation and oxidative stress, microdoses of cannabis compounds can alleviate common symptoms of chronic kidney disease like pain, nausea, and poor appetite. Cannabinoids may also relax the smooth muscles of the renal arteries to improve blood flow and oxygenation in the kidneys. 

Memory improvement after quitting weed can vary from person to person and depends on the duration and intensity of cannabis use. In general, memory improvements are more likely to be noticeable in individuals who were heavy or chronic cannabis users.

Research suggests that cognitive functions, including memory, may start to show signs of improvement within a few weeks to a few months after quitting cannabis. However, for some individuals, especially those with a history of heavy and long-term cannabis use, memory improvements may take longer, possibly up to a year or more.

Lifestyle factors, such as a healthy diet, an active lifestyle, and cognitive exercises, can also contribute to faster memory recovery. It's important to note that memory improvement is just one aspect of overall cognitive recovery, and individual experiences may vary.

Cannabidiol is not known to cause memory loss or impair cognitive function.

In fact, some studies suggest that CBD may have neuroprotective properties and could potentially help improve certain aspects of memory and cognitive function. CBD's interaction with the endocannabinoid system and other receptors in the human brain may promote neurogenesis and reduce oxidative stress, which can be beneficial for brain development and overall brain health.

Heavy and chronic cannabis use may have an impact on sperm count and quality. THC, the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, can bind to cannabinoid receptors in the testes and disrupt the normal processes of sperm production.

According to research, chronic cannabis use, especially in high doses, can lead to a decrease in sperm count, reduced sperm motility (movement), and changes in sperm morphology (shape and size). These effects are concerning for individuals who are trying to conceive.

This and other studies available on the effects of cannabis on testosterone and sperm in men look at excessive doses of cannabis. So far, studies that investigate cannabis microdoses are not available, so there is no conclusive evidence to share. We think microdoses of cannabis can do you more good than higher doses, especially when taken regularly and responsibly.

The duration that cannabis stays in your system depends on the following:

  • The frequency of use
  • The potency of the cannabis
  • The person’s individual metabolism
  • The person’s hydration level

Here's an estimated guideline on how long cannabis stays in your system:

  • In urine: cannabis metabolites can typically be detected in urine for up to 1 to 30 days after use. Occasional users may test positive for a shorter period, while heavy and frequent users may have metabolites in their urine for an extended period.
  • In blood: THC is detectable in blood for a shorter time, typically up to 1 to 2 days after use. However, in cases of heavy or chronic use, it may be detectable for a few days longer.
  • In saliva: weed can be detected in saliva for up to 1 to 7 days after use, although the detection window may be shorter for occasional users.
  • In hair: THC metabolites can be found in hair follicles for a much longer time, often up to 90 days or more after use. Hair tests are typically used for detecting chronic or long-term marijuana use.

If you need to undergo a drug test, consider how these factors might affect the detection of cannabis in your system.

There is limited evidence to suggest that heavy or chronic cannabis use may be associated with proteinuria. 

Proteinuria is a condition characterized by the presence of excess protein in the urine. It can be a sign of kidney dysfunction or other underlying health issues. While some case reports have suggested a potential association between cannabis use and proteinuria, it's important to consider other factors that may contribute to this condition, such as dehydration or kidney-related conditions.

CBD is generally considered to have a lower risk of harm compared to alcohol. While alcohol can have detrimental effects on the liver, cardiovascular system, and mental health, CBD is not associated with such severe health risks. In fact, CBD is being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions.

Alcohol is a known psychoactive substance that can impair judgment, coordination, and decision-making. CBD, on the other hand, is non-psychoactive and does not produce a “high” or intoxication. This makes CBD a preferable option for individuals seeking relief without altering their mental state.

Whether CBD is “better” than alcohol depends on your personal preferences and needs. Some people may choose CBD for relaxation, pain relief, or anxiety reduction, while others may enjoy moderate alcohol consumption in social settings.

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Van Den Hoogen, N. J., Harding, E. K., Davidson, C. E. D., & Trang, T. (2022, January 7). Cannabinoids in Chronic Pain: Therapeutic Potential Through Microglia Modulation. Frontiers in Neural Circuits; Frontiers Media.

Panlilio, L. V., Goldberg, S. R., & Justinova, Z. (2015, May 2). Cannabinoid abuse and addiction: Clinical and preclinical findings. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics; Nature Portfolio.

Batalla, A., Bhattacharyya, S., Yücel, M., Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A. S., Nogué, S., Torrens, M., Pujol, J., Farré, M., & Martín-Santos, R. (2013, February 4). Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings. PLOS ONE; Public Library of Science.

Volkow, N. D., Baler, R., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. (2014, June 5). Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. The New England Journal of Medicine; Massachusetts Medical Society.

Meier, M. H., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H. L., Houts, R., Keefe, R. S., McDonald, K., Ward, A. L., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2012, August 27). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; National Academy of Sciences.

Di Forti, M., Sallis, H. M., Allegri, F., Trotta, A., Ferraro, L., Stilo, S. A., Marconi, A., La Cascia, C., Marques, T. R., Pariante, C. M., Dazzan, P., Mondelli, V., Paparelli, A., Kolliakou, A., Prata, D., Gaughran, F., David, A. S., Morgan, C., Stahl, D., . . . Murray, R. M. (2013, December 17). Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users. Schizophrenia Bulletin; Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, B. W., & Khokhar, J. Y. (2021, February 5). Cannabis Use and Mental Illness: Understanding Circuit Dysfunction Through Preclinical Models. Frontiers in Psychiatry; Frontiers Media.

Moore, T. H., Zammit, S., Lingford-Hughes, A., Barnes, T. R. E., Jones, P. B., Burke, M. D., & Lewis, G. (2007, July 1). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. The Lancet; Elsevier BV.

Henshaw, F. R., Dewsbury, L. S., Lim, C. K., & Steiner, G. Z. (2021, June 1). The Effects of Cannabinoids on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research; Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Stueber, A., & Cuttler, C. (2021, October 11). Self-Reported Effects of Cannabis on ADHD Symptoms, ADHD Medication Side Effects, and ADHD-Related Executive Dysfunction. Journal of Attention Disorders, 26(6), 942–955.

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